As I've been organizing my job search materials, I've been reflecting on some of the Big Ideas I have learned are the most important among the too-many "big ideas" our textbook and state standards emphasize for Algebra 1.

One of the problems with the state standards is that they can't let go of anything as being less important than anything else. Which is why there are 26 overall standards, plus embedded sub-standards inside the standards, and the whole thing is a nasty ball of yarn to try and untangle.

One thing I've tried this year, which seems to be working well, is to choose my emphases based on what developmental psychologists have discovered about children's mathematical development. I am particularly grateful for the work of the British psychologists Terezinha Nunes and Peter Bryant, who also do a lot of work with Anne Watson of Oxford's math education program. Nunes and Bryant's book,

*Children Doing Mathematics*, has really blown my mind open to what they call the "generative" quality of children's mathematical development and number sense — that is to say, kids develop their sense of number and of mathematics in layers, the way some inkjet printers work, with each pass of the printhead setting down another layer that completely transforms the image that is emerging on the paper.

In Nunes and Bryant's synthesis, as well as in their summary of others' research, kids' understanding of quantity is revealed to be an extremely fluid, dynamic, and multi-faceted set of tools. As they put it, "a successfully developed understanding of number comes from four distinct developmental threads" which they summarize as:

- the ability to COUNT discrete OBJECTS
- a deep familiarity with a wide range of QUANTITIES OF QUALITATIVELY DIFFERENT KINDS (such as both countable and uncountable quantities)
- the ability to COMPARE QUANTITIES OR COLLECTIONS of objects, assessing both similarities and differences regardless of their qualitative kind(s)
- the ability to use established notation for all of these (Nunes and Bryant, pp. 1-20)

Yet, as they have observed, our current curriculum tends to address only #1 and #4.

This helped me understand something I had been struggling with for a long time — namely, the fact that there are

*many* incomplete understandings children develop that are sufficient for them in their context, BUT that are insufficient over the long term as a foundation for mature mathematical understanding. These are the mathematical versions of ideas like "the tooth fairy" or "Santa Claus." They are enabling fictions that are developmentally appropriate in their time and place, though they are not at all what we want our young adults to rely on by the time we release them out into the grown-up world of mathematics.

One of these incomplete understandings — one that drives university-level mathematicians like Keith Devlin head-banging mad — is MIRA, or the idea that Multiplication Is Repeated Addition. Their argument is that this is such a stunted understanding of multiplicative reasoning that it threatens to undermine the very foundations of civilization, dammit.

But in truth, like the idea of the tooth fairy or Santa Claus, MIRA does have a legitimate place in a child's generative mathematical development — as long as his or her teachers understand that, like the idea of the tooth fairy, it is an incomplete understanding that is meant to be expanded upon into a much richer and more scalar concept of multiplication.

The place where I am finding MIRA to be an extremely useful tool is with Algebra 1 students making their first forays into the abstractions of algebraic reasoning, which is to say, in dealing with polynomial arithmetic. I say this because young adolescents are such

*intensely* concrete thinkers. When I ask them to consider combining like terms such as 5 elephants and 3 elephants, they can easily understand what I am asking for. But the moment we start investigating the idea of combining 5x^2 and 3x^2, their heads explode. Things only get worse when they are asked to combine 5x^2, 3x^2, and 6x^3. It seems like they forget everything they have ever known about the combining of like terms, and they start adding or multiplying exponents and or worse things than most of you can imagine.

This is the place where some teachers find algebra tiles to be helpful. But I find that algebra tiles have a grammar and a rhetoric of their own that is not easily extensible into polynomial arithmetic beyond quadratic thinking. Also with their color-coding, they also add in moving parts I find my students are not yet ready to think about.

But guide their attention away from abstraction for a moment, and ask them what happens if they combine 5 dogs and 6 apples. They understand the logic of ConcreteLand completely. In this case, I have found, getting them to think about 5x^2 the way they think about 5 dogs and about 6x^3 the way they think about 6 apples, and their conceptual understanding shoots through the roof. I can even use Brahmagupta's idea of "fortunes, debts, and ciphers" (positive numbers, negative numbers, and zero) to help students think about what happens in a trading economy where I might "owe them" 3 dogs (or 3 x^3) as we barter our algebraic quantities away for each other's lunch components.

Students still need a lot of practice and experience with this whole crazy abstract insanity to cement their understanding in place, and they can be expected to relapse several times into believing that they need to add exponents instead of thinking about coefficients as quantifiers. But eventually the idea of quantifying (and if need be, combining) x^2s the way they count and quantify dogs or apples gives them a surer footing as they begin to construct a new and deeper understanding of multiplying variables. And

*that* is something I can eventually build a rich and scalar concept of multiplication on top of — on that would be appropriate to eventually deliver to Professor Devlin's lecture hall.

I do this knowing that even within a few months, this conceptual framework will be revised and replaced with other incomplete understandings many times over. But I do so knowing that I am teaching my students how to learn by giving them tools for understanding how to build tools that help them understand what the heck they are doing.